Your guide to being an expatriate in Sudan

Caffeinate Your Sudan Expat Journey: Find Essential Info and Connect with Expatriates Today!

Sudan, formally known as the Republic of the Sudan, is a country located in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, and Eritrea to the northeast. Sudan is known for its vast desert landscapes, Nubian pyramids, and historic sites dating back to ancient Egypt and Arab rule.


Expat destinations in Sudan

Demographics of Sudan:

Ethnic groups

The majority of Sudan's population is made up of African ethnic groups, namely the Fur, Zaghawa, Beri, and Nuba, with Arabs making up a significant minority. Camel herders, Nile farmers, and city-dwellers all represent different segments of Sudan's demographic landscape.


Arabic is the official language, spoken by most Sudanese; however, locally spoken African languages such as Nubian and Beja are also prevalent, as well as dialects of Nilo-Saharan languages.

Religion Overview

Islam is the dominant religion in Sudan, with a large majority following Sunni Islam. However, traditional African faiths and Christianity also have a presence in certain regions.

Major Religions


Sudan's climate is mostly desert, with hot, dry summers and relatively cool winters. The southern region experiences a more tropical climate with high rainfall during the wet season.

Economy Overview

Sudan's economy is primarily based on agriculture, with crops like cotton, sorghum, and sesame being grown in the south; however, there have been ongoing conflicts that have resulted in significant economic instability.

Key Industries

  • Agriculture
  • Oil and Gas
  • Manufacturing

Major Companies

  • Sundan Oil & Gas Holding Company
  • Sudanese Investment Authority
  • Sudanese National Press & Publishing Corporation

Culture and Language Overview

Sudan's culture is deeply influenced by its ancient past, with remnants of Nubian and Arab rule still present in its religious, artistic, and architectural traditions. Folk dances, colorful fabrics, and musical rhythms play a prominent role in Sudanese culture.

Cultural Highlights

  • Nubian pyramids, dating back to ancient times, are located near Meroe and Karan
  • Folk dances, such as the lambada and dabke, are often performed during celebrations and festivities
  • Festivals like Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are celebrated with traditional foods, decorations, and gift-giving

Geography and Landmarks Overview

Sudan's vast landscapes include the Nile River, which flows through the country, creating a lush agricultural region in the south. The Nubian Desert, which stretches across the north, is home to the ancient cities of Meroe and Karan, while the Red Sea coast offers stunning beaches and marine life.

Notable Landmarks

  • Meroe Pyramids
  • Pyramids of Nuri
  • White Nile River

National Holidays

  • New Year's Day (January 1)
  • Revolution Day (July 17)
  • Independence Day (January 1, 1956)
  • Christmas Day (December 25)
  • Eid al-Fitr (End of Ramadan)
  • Martyr's Day (January 20)
  • Eid al-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice)
  • Armed Forces Day (April 11)
  • Remembrance Day for the Sudanese Martyrs (June 30)

Political Stability

Sudan has faced political instability in recent years due to ongoing conflicts between the government and various rebel groups. The country is currently experiencing a difficult economic period, exacerbated by governments corruption and debt.

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