Your guide to being an expatriate in Mongolia

Caffeinate Your Mongolia Expat Journey: Find Essential Info and Connect with Expatriates Today!

Mongolia, also known as Outer Mongolia, is a land-locked country situated in East Asia. Positioned between China and Russia, Mongolia boasts a friendly and welcoming nature towards foreigners, making it an ideal destination for expats. Although primarily an agrarian society, Mongolia is rapidly urbanizing, with Ulaanbaatar, the capital city, growing at a rate of 2% annually.


Expat destinations in Mongolia

Demographics of Mongolia:

Ethnic groups

Khalkha (66.7%) Turkic (32.8%), Russian (0.03%)


Khalkha Mongolian, Turkic languages, Russian

Religion Overview

Mongolia's officially recognized religion is Tibetan Buddhism, which is adhered to by over 53% of the population. The major religions also include Protestantism and Catholicism.

Major Religions


Mongolia's climate is generally cold and dry in its interior, becoming progressively warmer and wetter toward the south. The capital Ulaanbaatar experiences extremely cold winters, and summers can be hot and dry.

Economy Overview

Mongolia's economy is based on agriculture and animal husbandry, which account for over 33% of the GDP.

Key Industries

  • Mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, gold)
  • Agriculture (livestock, wheat, barley, vegetables)
  • Manufacturing (textiles, food products, building materials)
  • Services (finance, retail, hospitality)

Major Companies

  • Tegee Political Stability Corporation (Government holding)
  • Codex Morrissey & Partners (Engineering)
  • Rock Oil (Oil and gas exploration)

Culture and Language Overview

Mongolia's culture is a unique blend of traditional Nomadic and Modern urban influences.

Cultural Highlights

  • The Naadam Festival: Held annually, it celebrates Mongolian traditions and includes horse racing, archery, and traditional wrestling.
  • Mongolian folk music and dance: Featuring throat singing, traditional dance, and horse-head fiddle music.
  • Mongolian cuisine: Full of hearty and healthy dishes including buuz, khuushuur, and bansh,

Geography and Landmarks Overview

Mongolia's landscape is characterized by vast stretches of steppe, where nomadic herders still roam.

Notable Landmarks

  • Gobi Desert: Stretching across southern Mongolia, this vast sandy terrain boasts unique rock formations, dinosaur fossils, and hot springs.
  • Ulaanbaatar: The capital city offers a mix of modern and traditional architecture, cultural festivals, and a bustling nightlife.
  • Lake Khövsgöl: The second-largest freshwater lake in Central Asia, it is surrounded by mountains and serves as a haven for hiking and fishing.

National Holidays

  • New Year's Day (January 1)
  • Sar Uul Festival (March)
  • Peace and Dignity Day (April 6)
  • Naadam Festival (July)
  • National Day (July 12)
  • Constitution Day (December)
  • Mother's Day (December 21)

Political Stability

Mongolia has been relatively stable politically since the fall of communism in the 1990s. The country has a semi-presidential republic system of government, and general elections are held periodically.

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