Your guide to being an expatriate in Turkmenistan

Caffeinate Your Turkmenistan Expat Journey: Find Essential Info and Connect with Expatriates Today!

Turkmenistan is a predominantly Muslim and Turkmen-speaking nation in Central Asia. It gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and has since been led by President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov. The country is characterized by vast deserts and steppes, with some fertile lands in the south. Turkmenistan's economy is heavily dependent on its abundant natural resources, particularly gas and oil.


Expat destinations in Turkmenistan

Demographics of Turkmenistan:

Ethnic groups

Turkmen (79%), Uzbek (13%), Russian (5%), Armenian (1%).


Turkmen, Russian, Uzbek.

Religion Overview

Islam is the dominant religion in Turkmenistan, with over 90% of the population adhering to Sunni Islam. Religious freedom is guaranteed by the constitution, and there are several mosques throughout the country. Christianity and Judaism also have a small presence.

Major Religions


Turkmenistan has a dry, continental climate, with extremely hot summers and cold winters. The country is mostly desert, except for some irrigated agricultural areas in the south.

Economy Overview

Turkmenistan's economy is primarily based on its abundant natural resources, including oil, gas, and minerals. The country also has moderate agricultural production, with cotton, wheat, and grapes being the primary crops. The government regulates most of the economy, with state-owned enterprises dominating many industries.

Key Industries

  • Oil and gas extraction
  • Turkmen textiles
  • Construction
  • Information technology
  • Mining

Major Companies

  • Turkmenneft
  • TurkmenGas
  • Turkmenbank
  • TurkmenAshgabatMetallurgiya

Culture and Language Overview

Turkmen culture is strongly rooted in its nomadic and agricultural past. Traditional arts include carpet weaving, ceramics, and embroidery. Turkmen music and dance are also popular forms of expression. The Turkmen alphabet, based on the Cyrillic script, was introduced in the 1940s.

Cultural Highlights

  • Turkmen Carpet Museum
  • Ruhnama Cultural Center
  • Gypjak Mosque
  • Asia Games Stadium
  • Ancient Merv Archaeological Site

Geography and Landmarks Overview

Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia, with a border shared with Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, and Iran. The country's geography is mostly desert, with some scattered oases and farmland. The largest bodies of water in Turkmenistan are the Aral Sea, which shares a border with Uzbekistan, and the Sarykamysh Lake, which is entirely within Turkmenistan.

Notable Landmarks

  • Kipchak Palace
  • Ashgabat Ertogrul Gazi Mosque
  • Turkmenistan National Music Conservatory
  • Seroi-Aygiran Archaeological Site
  • Sarykamysh Lake

National Holidays

  • Independence Day (October 27)
  • New Year's Day (January 1)
  • International Day of Non-Violence (October 2)
  • People's Day (April 13)
  • Labour Day (May 1)

Political Stability

Turkmenistan is classified as an authoritarian state, with President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov holding nearly absolute power. The country has a one-party system, with the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (DPT) being the only legal political party. Political dissent is restricted, and there have been numerous allegations of human rights abuses. The country's stability is maintained through extensive security measures and tight control over the media.

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