Your guide to being an expatriate in Canada

Caffeinate Your Canada Expat Journey: Find Essential Info and Connect with Expatriates Today!

Canada is a North American country spanning over 9.9 million square kilometers with diverse terrain that includes mountain ranges, vast freshwater lakes, and dense forests. It is officially known as the 'Canada', derived from the French word 'Kanata' meaning 'village', referring to the indigenous settlements along the Ottawa River. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, and a member of the Commonwealth, NATO, G7, G20, and OECD. As of 2021, its population is approximately 38 million, making it the second-largest country by total area and third-largest by land area. English and French are the official languages.


Expat destinations in Canada

Demographics of Canada:

Ethnic groups

The population is predominantly White (81.1%), followed by Asian (16.0%), Black (3.3%), Indigenous (1.6%), and Mixed (7.1%) races.


English: 56.9%; French: 21.3%; Punjabi: 1.5%; Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, and other varieties): 1.4%; Spanish: 1.3%; Tagalog (Filipino): 1.3%; Italian: 1.2%; German: 1.1%; Polish: 1.0%; Portugese: 1.0%.

Religion Overview

Religion plays a significant role in Canadian society, with Christianity being the dominant faith (around 67% of the population), followed by Islam (3.2%), Hinduism (1.5%), Sikhism (1.4%), and Buddhism (1.1%) religions.

Major Religions


The climate in Canada varies significantly due to its immense size, varying from a subarctic climate in the north to a humid continental climate in the southeast bordering the United States. The major environmental issues are air pollution, water pollution, and wildlife conservation.

Economy Overview

Canada has a highly developed mixed economy characterized by advanced technology, as well as abundant natural resources such as forestry, minerals, energy, and fishing resources. The major industries are services (75%), manufacturing (14%), natural resources (5%), and agriculture (1%). Canada is a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and a member of the WTO.

Key Industries

  • Financial services
  • Aerospace
  • Information technology
  • Oil and gas
  • Mining
  • Forestry
  • Fisheries
  • Telecommunications
  • Agriculture and agribusiness

Major Companies

  • Brookfield Asset Management
  • Centerra Gold
  • Chorus Aviation
  • Cameco
  • Canadian Natural Resources
  • Cenovus Energy
  • Enbridge
  • Intact Financial Corporation
  • Imperial Oil
  • Mainton Industries
  • Petrada Energy

Culture and Language Overview

Canada's multicultural society reflects its diverse ethnographic heritage, including European, Aboriginal, and Asian traditions. Various cultural and linguistic groups continue to preserve their respective heritage, and festivals celebrating traditional music, dance, and literature are popularly witnessed. Also, these festivals are widely supported by the Canadian government through cultural policies of promoting cultural heritage.

Cultural Highlights

  • The Canadian Music Festivals, such as the ‘Cape Breton Celtic Music Festival’ (NS), ‘Calgary Folk Music Festival’ (AB), and ‘Celtic Fest’ (ON) reveal the music richness of Canada.
  • Winnipeg Folk Festival (Manitoba, Western Canada)
  • The Winterlude Festival located in Ottawa is an annual celebration that attracts thousands of tourists with ice carvings, snow sculpting, and skating events.
  • The Mardi Gras in Quebec City is popularly celebrated in accordance with the French tradition

Geography and Landmarks Overview

Canada is the second-largestcountry in terms of total area (9.98 million km2). It shares border with the USA (8891 km), and is also surrounded by numerous islands, including Baffin Island (the largest and most northerly-located island of Canada, with an area of 507,452 km2 ), Victoria Island, Ellesmere Island, and Axel Heiberg Island. The significant geographical features include the Canadian Shield, the Great Lakes, the Rocky Mountains, the Arctic Tundra, the Canadian Prairies, the Hudson Bay, the Labrador Sea, and the Saint Lawrence River.

Notable Landmarks

  • Niagara Falls
  • The Banff National Park
  • The Icefields Parkway
  • The Rocky Mountains and Rockies
  • The Arctic Ocean - Beaufort Sea
  • The Canadian Arctic Archipelago
  • Old Quebec City
  • The Bay of Fundy - World’s highest tidal range
  • The Haida Gwaii, formerly known as the Queen Charlotte Islands - A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • The Gros Morne National Park (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
  • The Saguenay Fjord - a UNESCO world biosphere reserve
  • Toronto-Dominion Centre Complex - A modern skyscraper with World Finance Awards (2018-2019) 'Best Mixed-Use Development of the Year'
  • Cascade Gardens (Victoria, British Columbia)
  • The Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska) - Besides being part of the USA, this region is also within the confines of Canada's Yukon and Northwest Territories.
  • The Vimy Ridge Memorial - A UNESCO-listed, war memorial commemorating the Battle of Vimy Ridge, during the First World War (1917)

National Holidays

  • New Year's Day (January 1)
  • Good Friday
  • Canada Day (July 1)
  • British Columbia Day (Second Monday in August)
  • Territorial Day (August 1)
  • Labour Day (First Monday in September)
  • Thanksgiving Day (Second Monday in October)
  • Remembrance Day (November 11)
  • Christmas Day (December 25)
  • Boxing Day (December 26)

Political Stability

Canada has a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy. It maintains a stable and prosperous economy, while upholding laws regarding civil rights, personal freedoms, and social welfare. The country is a member of several regional and international organizations, such as the United Nations, NATO, OECD, WTO, and La Francophonie - An association of French-speaking Countries. Canada has a long-standing tradition of tolerance for religious and ethnic minorities, earning it a reputation as one of the most prosperous nations worldwide. Its society is powered by industry-leading educational and skill-building systems that promote job opportunities and start-up culture.

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