Your guide to being an expatriate in Syria

Caffeinate Your Syria Expat Journey: Find Essential Info and Connect with Expatriates Today!

Syria, located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa, is a Middle Eastern country with a rich cultural heritage that dates back thousands of years. It has been inhabited by various civilizations, including the Mesopotamians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and Ottomans. It's currently a government republic and is undergoing political and economic transformation.


Expat destinations in Syria

Demographics of Syria:

Ethnic groups

Arabs make up over 90% of the population. Kurds, Armenians, and Turkmens make up the remaining 10%.


Arabic (official) 99%, Kurdish, Armenian, and Turkish (small minority).

Religion Overview

Islam is the predominant religion in Syria, accounting for nearly 87% of the population. Sunnis form the majority (74%), while Alawis (12%) and Shias (1%) are also present. There are small Christian, Jewish, and Druze minorities.

Major Religions


Syria has a Mediterranean climate. It experiences hot, dry summers (June to August) and mild winters (December to February) with occasional snowfall in the north. The coastal region is much wetter than the interior, with usually higher levels of precipitation.

Economy Overview

The Syrian economy is currently in a state of instability and decline due to the ongoing conflict. Before the war, it relied heavily on agriculture, industry, and services. The country's key industries included dehydrated and preserved vegetables and fruits, textiles, cement, and food processing. Key exports were petroleum, petroleum products, cotton, clothing, and textiles.

Key Industries

  • Dehydrated and preserved vegetables and fruits

Major Companies

  • Symphony Communications

Culture and Language Overview

Syrian culture is a blend of Arab, Turkish, Persian, and Byzantine influences. It values hospitality, generosity, and traditional values. Syrians are known for their cuisine, music, and poetry. The official language is Arabic.

Cultural Highlights

  • Cuisine - Syrian cuisine is rich in flavors and spices. It includes dishes like kibbeh, muhammara, maqluba, warak enta, and baba ghanoush.
  • Music - Syrian music traditionally includes instruments like the oud, qanun, frame drum, and flute. It often features singing as well.
  • Poetry - Syrian poetry dates back to the ancient times. It covers a range of themes, from love and relaxation to war and destruction.
  • Festivals - The Syriac New Year, Nawruz, is celebrated in February as a spring festival, while Ramadan is one of the major Islamic religious observations.

Geography and Landmarks Overview

Syria's rocky mountains, rolling plains, and steppes are home to varied flora and fauna. It's prone to earthquakes and droughts. Major rivers include the Euphrates, Orontes, and Tigris.

Notable Landmarks

  • Citadel of Aleppo
  • Old City of Damascus
  • Old City of Bosra
  • Historic District of Maaloula
  • Crac des Chevaliers
  • White Mosque

National Holidays

  • New Year's Day (January 1)
  • Liberation Day (March 25)
  • Independence Day (April 17)
  • Armed Forces Day (May 16)
  • Arab Socialist Baath Party Foundation Day (July 12)
  • Eid al-Fitr (End of Ramadan)
  • Eid al-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice)

Political Stability

The Syrian government remains highly centralized and authoritarian. President Bashar al-Assad has been in power since 2000, and Syrian society increasingly splits between supporters and opponents of his regime. Ongoing conflicts, fighting, and bombings present a major threat to the population's safety.

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